Validation Isn't Coming

“Validation isn’t coming” was recently pronounced over dinner with a friend and dance colleague, who by all outside accounts, has achieved every imaginable form of validation: a job in a large visible company, world tours, high-profile choreographic grants, glowing reviews from major presses for phenomenal performances as both a dancer and dance maker, etc. Coming from such an accomplished individual, I thought this remark highlighted just how elusive a sense of self-worth can be for dance artists.

To provide a little more context, the genesis of this title-inspiring remark was a discussion about why one might re-enter the dance world after many years away. A mutual friend was considering returning to dance after taking some time off, and identified her motivation as something like: “I want to be a part of someone’s process, to try to figure out how that person thinks and sees.” It was this remark that prompted the response: “As long as that’s why you’re doing it, because validation isn’t coming.”

In graduate school I learned about intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation would be wanting to: get a certain role, receive a good review or an award, win someone else’s respect, etc., while intrinsic motivation would be more along the lines of wanting to: experience the joy of moving through space, connect the mind and body, conquer new material and physical challenges, etc. Research suggests that those with intrinsic motivation for a task experience more positive outcomes than those with extrinsic motivation, which is associated with burnout, withdrawal from participation, and a host of negative feelings. When I learned about this, I was in the throws of burnout myself, and these findings hit close to home. Extrinsic motivation predicts burnout? Is that why I’m not dancing, because I lost touch with my intrinsic motivation? I got swept up in my ego and lost site of some wholesome love of dance!?!? I felt the research was assaulting me personally with a moral agenda, saying: “In order to be a happy dancer, Ellie, you cannot be concerned with petty matters and outward achievements.”

My interpretation of the research was that in order to be happy, one must avoid extrinsic goals, and I was quick to find faults with this logic. Mainly, how could I be expected to maintain such a Pollyanna outlook on something with which I have had such a long and complex relationship? Of course dancing brings me many intrinsic pleasures, not least among them is the pure enjoyment of moving through space to music. If I were dancing for a hobby my motivations would easily remain purely intrinsic; I would go to a desk job by day, and in the evening, I would delight in the simple joy of romping around a big open space to live music with an eclectic cast of characters. It’s not to say that these pleasures are not present in the professional dancer. For me, these intrinsic motivations are the core reason I dance, however, where my career is concerned I also have a plethora of external motivations and frankly, I believe these are important too. Getting a good job leads to other good jobs; positive reviews help earn space grants or commissions; people want to work with those who earn their respect; and on and on. How can I be expected not to concern myself with these less virtuous ambitions? I have a 30-year-long relationship with dance and “it’s complicated”.

Of course, research doesn’t make moral suggestions. Rather, it illuminates patterns. Studies don’t advise individuals on how to live their lives, at most they provide data on which to base advice. This particular body of research reveals that the nature of motivation predicts or correlates with things like burnout or positive affect, but what you do with that information is your business. Personally, even in the face of this knowledge, I maintain that it’s unreasonable for a professional, working dancer to entirely avoid extrinsic motivation and for me, the take away is that it’s important to find a balance between your career ambitions and your day-to-day “joie de danse”. If you get too fixated on career goals and lose sight of the things you really like about what you do, you’ll probably be unhappy and eventually burnout. Surely this is the same in all professions.

While I know I have genuine, internally motivated reasons to dance, there have certainly been times where my external motivation has over-powered those reasons. The outcome is unpleasant. So, I wonder, how can we protect our intrinsic motivation, and prevent it from being consumed by extrinsic ambitions? Remaining actively aware of the things you love about dancing seems like an obvious, possibly simplistic, but “easier said than done” bit of advice. Perhaps a daily assignment, such as writing down your positive dance experiences and intrinsically motivated goals in a journal, or a daily meditation task with a mantra that puts your “joie de danse” at the forefront of your mind. Also, evidence shows that some work and learning climates are more conducive to intrinsic motivation, so choose your environment and employers wisely. Self-determination theory suggests that people and situations that foster a sense of relatedness, autonomy, and competency are best for maintaining intrinsic motivation.

Finally, I want to tie these matters of validation and motivation to my previous post on the importance of establishing good goals. To recap, goals are not just for pushing us forward, but are also for boosting confidence. Self-esteem is essentially your sense of self-worth, and by establishing the right goals you can enhance self-confidence and reduce reliance on outside recognition for a sense of validation. Establishing goals and accomplishing them demonstrates (to yourself) your capacity for achievement, and enhances your sense of control over your destiny, both of which are thought to ultimately boost self-esteem. With sturdy self-esteem, validation is secured from within. Thus, in order to increase self-confidence, it is important to set actionable goals. Actionable goals are things you can address independently. These might include technical goals, fitness goals, attitudinal goals, or intellectual goals such as improving turnout, endurance, positive outlook, or anatomical knowledge. Conversely, getting a certain job, role, or grant are ultimately NOT within your control, those outcomes are decided by someone else and are therefor NOT actionable. Another way to ensure your goals are actionable is to generally focus on goals that are task oriented (i.e. improving specific skills) rather than ego oriented (i.e. being the fastest, the first, the best, etc.), since you can only control yourself, not anyone else’s abilities or your relationship to them.

In summary, research clearly indicates that intrinsic motivation is important to happiness and wellbeing, so we have to find ways to keep it well nourished. In my opinion, it is unreasonable to expect any professional not to have some extrinsic motivation as well, so I believe our challenge lies in keeping these ambitions from dominating our attention. We might do this through writing assignments, or enhancing mindfulness, and we can also bolster our intrinsic motivations and sense of self-worth by setting appropriate, task oriented, actionable goals. Ultimately, validation has to be secured from within, and cannot be reliant on things outside of your control.

How to you protect your “joie de danse” from your career ambitions? 

 

Related Reading:

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54–67.

Access:

http://disde.minedu.gob.pe/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/2958/Intrinsic%20and%20Extrinsic%20Motivations%20Classic%20Definitions%20and%20New%20Directions.pdf?sequence=1

 

Quested, E., & Duda, J. L. (2010). Exploring the social-environmental determinants of well- and ill-being in dancers: a test of basic needs theory. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 32(1), 39–60.

Access:

http://eprints.bham.ac.uk/706/1/2010_Quested_%26_Duda._Exploring_the_Social-Environmental_Determinants_of_Well-_and_Ill-Being.pdf

 

Quested, E., & Duda, J. L. (2011). Antecedents of burnout among elite dancers: A longitudinal test of basic needs theory. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(2), 159–167.

Access:

http://eprints.bham.ac.uk/696/1/QuestedDuda_PsychSportEx2011.pdf

 

 

Why We Need Relavant Goals, Not Goal Twizzlers

Goals help direct us; they inspire action and direct forward propulsion. Not surprisingly, successful individuals have been found to spend time setting appropriate goals. In part this is due to the forward propulsion mechanism (that’s not an academic term, I made it up), by which I simply mean that goals motivate us to act.  

However, the correlation between goal making and success has also to do with self-efficacy and self-esteem. Self-esteem is your overall belief that you are a person of value, and self-efficacy is your belief that you are capable in a specific skill. Self-efficacy can influence self-esteem: acquiring skills makes us feel capable and this sense of able-ness can influence our global sense of self-worth. For example, if I’m working on reducing performance anxiety, and I develop some good skills for managing that condition, then it could be said that my emotion-control self-efficacy is improved because I now feel that I can ameliorate my anxiety; I no longer feel that anxiety is something I have no agency over; the condition is no longer a random twist of fate, rather it is something I can skillfully manipulate. If I also believe that managing my emotions is important to my overall performance, my identity as a dancer, and my overall sense of being a worthwhile person, then this increased emotion-control self-efficacy will likely boost my overall self-esteem. Finally, you may not be surprised to hear that research suggests high self-esteem is correlated with happiness, so my skillful control of my anxiety is apt to increase my happiness.

To recap, that’s:

> anxiety-management skills > emotion-control self-efficacy > self-esteem > happiness

 

Here’s another example: I set a goal for acquiring a specific technical skill, let’s say turning, and I accomplish that goal, (“Yay! Look at me, I can consistently do a triple pirouette!”). From this, I develop turning self-efficacy; I no longer feel that my turning ability is due to tidal patterns, but rather to my own agency. I believe that skill to be important to my identity as a dancer, and so I also feel slightly more confident as a dancer. Ultimately, setting a goal to consistently complete triple pirouettes has enhanced my self-esteem and consequently, perhaps, my happiness.

 

Using the example above, there is plenty of opportunity to go wrong. Conflating self-efficacy with self-esteem is one potential problem. What if I make a goal to turn better, but in fact, I don’t think turning is all that important in life or in dance? In reality, I do pirouettes in ballet class, but I’m a modern dancer now and I think the last time I was asked to do a triple turn on stage was in 1999. In this case, increased self-efficacy will not improve self-esteem. I’ve set this goal, I’ve achieved my goal, I’ve boosted my turning self-efficacy, but I have not positively impacted my self-confidence. Ultimately, increased turning self-efficacy might not have any impact whatsoever on my overall wellbeing.

 

Have you experienced the erroneous goal making mentioned above? I know I have. Certain goals appeal to me, perhaps in part because they’re easier for me to achieve, they suit my existing skill set and they appeal to my sensibility. It’s temping to pursue a goal that initially tastes good to your soul or your body, but doesn’t actually give you the nutrients you need to live a healthy life. Goal twizzlers. Unfortunately, investing in appetizing but non-nutritious goals may not leave you successful, confident, or happy. In fact, in my experience, getting very good at things you don’t really believe to be important can be positively demoralizing. It feels crummy to feel you are very skilled at things you believe to be utterly unimportant. Making relevant goals is very important.

 

It’s essential to think critically about what you truly need to improve upon in order to be a more successful dancer. I’ll talk more about this in my next entry, and also about why dancers might find it particularly challenging to make relevant goals.

       

Related Reading

On self-esteem (for its cultural insights alone, I consider this a very interesting read):

Baumeister, R. F., Campbell, J. D., Krueger, J. I., & Vohs, K. D. (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(1), 1–44.

Find it at: http://www.psychologicalscience.org/journals/pspi/pdf/pspi411.pdf

 

For more on self-efficacy, all things Albert Bandura.

For example, this book:

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman and Company.

Or this article:

Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122–147. Find it at: http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Bandura/Bandura1982AP.pdf

 

Goal Making and Dance-Introduction

I’m currently interested in Goal Making and Dance.

As in other fields, the ability to make appropriate goals is essential to achievement in dance. And like most successful people, I think that successful dancers have some innate understanding of goal making. However, I suspect this aptitude is particularly present in technical goals. The ability to break down a physical ambition into a collection of manageable steps is something we are taught in class: passé before pirouette. However goals might be qualitative or psychological in nature or they might pertain to career success or to personal health and wellbeing and here I think many of us, though of course not all of us, struggle. My ultimate aim here is to help dancers to be as happy and healthy as the want, or need, to be, and evidence suggests that part of being happy and healthy is to do with appropriate goal setting. I would be equivocating if I did not disclose that this is personal to me; that I suspect I lack some valuable, happy-making, goal-setting skills. Much of this is to do with who I am a person of course, and many other personal factors that have influenced my character, but as far as this blog goes, I am interested in how the world of dance does or does not cultivate healthy goal making attitudes, and how we can help dancers make goals that bring satisfaction and success. 

 

From my curiosity, this blog is born! I am currently exploring the topic at hand with a wonderful group of students and for the next few weeks or maybe months, I will be writing about what I discover from our shared investigation of Goal Making and Dance. 

 

Related Reading

This is my all-time favorite read on the subject:

Orlick, T., & Partington, J. (1988). Mental links to excellence. The Sport Psychologist, 2, 105–130.

Find it at: http://precisionmi.org/Materials/PeakPerformMat/mentallinkstoexcellence.pdf

And if you want to explore the topic more broadly, try:

Roberts, G., & Treasure, D. (n.d.). Advances in Motivation in Sport and Exercise-3rd Edition. Human Kinetics.

Browse at: http://books.google.com/books/about/Advances_in_Motivation_in_Sport_and_Exer.html?id=vzHiNIof6HsC

 

 

 

 

 

Coming soon...

In my blog, I take ideas that have emerged from my experiences as a dancer and teacher, both of which demand an intuitive sense of the body, and explore them further with the help of scientific research. Of what we feel and think we know about the body, what can be proven? What can be disproven? And where experience is concerned, does proof even matter? Or exist?